A Lattice / Modified Cluster Model of the Nucleus
A modified cluster nuclear model that can be characterized by a lattice like structure. The nucleus is composed of protons and neutrons each consisting of three quarks. The strong force holds the protons and neutrons in the nucleus, The color force holds the quarks in the protons and neutrons and the magnetic and electric fields of the quarks, comprising the nucleons, control the structure of the nucleus.
The magnetic dipoles of the quarks contained in the protons and neutrons align to maintain a consistent spin and magnetic moment for each nucleon and ultimately for the nucleus as a whole. This is most evident in the structure of the helium nucleus or alpha particle always has zero spin and no magnetic dipole.
The quarks making up the protons and neutrons have positive and negative electric charges that result in protons with a net positive charge and neutrons with a net zero charge. Without the quarks leaving the confines of the individual protons and neutrons, the electric charges of the quarks, contained in the protons and neutrons, align to create a nuclear lattice structure. The three quark constituents form triangular shaped nucleons. This shape facilitates the paring or coupling of the protons two up and one down quarks electrically with the two down and one up quarks of the neutron which is a deuteron.
Two protons and two neutrons coupled in this fashion form an alpha particle with a plus two charge, zero spin and no magnetic dipole forming a very tightly bound relatively flat 6 sided prismatic like structure. The triangular form of the nucleons facilitates an overall hexagonal lattice construct within the nucleus. Continuing the schema of electric coupling of charged quarks, from both protons and neutrons, the entire suite of stable nuclei can be shown to result from an ever enlarging hexagonal lattice based nuclear structure. The anomalies that occur at beryllium, technetium, promethium, and polonium represent unstable balance in the protons at these points. Similarly locations such as 19 and 21 neutrons and other such points represent unstable balance points in the placement of neutrons.
Nuclear Structure - a Modified Lattice Nucleon/Quark Model
A new model of the structure of the nucleus is presented, based on a modified lattice approach and matching quark charges contained in nucleons. The Nuclear Valley Stability is a blueprint of nuclear growth and structure, growing from the smallest to the largest stable nuclei. Electrical charge alignment and coupling of magnetic dipole of the quarks form a structure of protons and neutrons in such a manner that the nucleus forms a stable, semi-ridged structure, which accounts for the fact that the spin and magnetic dipole moments of a given nucleus have a fixed value. In the case of the alpha particle the 12 quarks forming two protons and two neutrons align in such a way that they form a six-sided prism with zero spin and zero magnetic dipole. Three alpha particles attach to form carbon-12 creating a ring structure around which the heavier nuclei are built. This pattern follows through all the stable nuclei, with other structures forming around the Core. Rotational balance or radial symmetry of the structure is shown to be a critical feature of heavier nuclei. A “Nuclear Periodic Table ” and “Stable Nuclei Growth Table” are presented. This model explains that nuclear fission occurs along two weak structure levels that only have protons in the core. The fixed size of the kernel between these two structurally weak levels first results in asymmetrical fission and second because that kernel is a constant size the distribution of the heavier daughter product is similar, regardless of size of the nuclei under going a fission.