Color confinement holds the quarks together as protons and
neutron while the electromagnetic force arranges those protons and
neutrons into a hexagonal lattice like structure. The hexagonal
nuclear structure is the result of triangles formed by the
three quarks that comprise the protons and neutrons.
- The first significant nuclear components are the protons
and neutrons which are each made of three quarks.
- The second essential nuclear component is the alpha particle,
which is made of two protons and two neutrons. The protons and
neutrons contain twelve quarks, six up and six down.
These quarks are confined to their protons and neutrons.
- The third nuclear component is the carbon12 ring. The carbon12
ring is made of six protons and six neutron, eighteen up and eighteen
down quarks that are confined to their respective nucleons.
These are all nuclear structural components resulting from the
lattice structure that is built around the interactions of the
electromagnetic fields associated with the up and down quarks.
All nuclear structures revolves around protons and neutrons
that are ultimately built around electromagnetic interaction
of the foundation particles, quarks, and their locations in the
protons and neutrons.
The model presented here is a lattice structure based on the
interrelationship of electric and magnetic fields of the quarks
that make up the protons and neutrons. The models shown here is
constructed using struts and nodes obtained from
- The “ZOME” nodes in this model represent quarks.
- The “ZOME” struts represent forces, color and/or electromagnetic.
The foundation particles are quarks that are represented in the
models show here by “ZOME” nodes.
The black “ZOME” nodes represent “UP” quarks.
The “UP” quark has a +2/3 charge.
The white “ZOME” nodes represent “DOWN” quarks.
The “DOWN” quark has a -1/3 charge.
The protons and neutrons are the primary components of the
nucleus and both nucleons are composed of three quarks.
The first nuclear components, protons and neutrons, are
represented in the “ZOME” model by:
Three blue struts connect black and white nodes to represent
protons. The proton is shown as a “ZOME” construct using three
blue struts (representing the color force) to connect two black
nodes (representing the UP quarks) and a white node (representing
the DOWN quark).
The proton with 2 "UP" quarks (+4/3) and 1 "DOWN" quark (-1/3)
equals an over all +1 charge for the proton.
Three white struts connect white and black nodes to represent
neutrons. The neutron is shown as a “ZOME” construct using three white
struts (representing the color force) to connect two white nodes
(representing the DOWN quarks) and a black node (representing the UP
The neutron with 2 "DOWN" quarks (-2/3) and 1 "UP" quark (+2/3)
equals an over all zero charge for the neutron.
The alpha particle is made from two protons and two neutrons
white nodes reresent down quarks and black nodes represent up quarks
blue struts for protons and white struts for neutrons.
The Carbon 12 Ring
The Carbon12 Ring is made from 3 alpha particles composed of
6 protons and 6 neutrons white nodes reresent down quarks and
black nodes represent up quarks blue struts for protons and
white struts for neutrons.
In this and all subsequent segments the nucleus is studied and understood by
examining “The Nuclear Valley of Stability” and how it progresses
from one stable nucleus to the next via increasing “A” numbers.
By determining how the next proton or neutron is added to form the next
stable nucleus along the path of stable nuclei via ever larger ‘A’ numbers it
becomes apparent why that stability valley exists including why and how the
nuclear lattice structure forms. Running along the bottom of this stable
valley is a path of stability that demonstrates the apparent growth of the
nucleus in an obvious and logical manner. This growth might be compared to
growing a crystal one particle at a time
This explanation does not represent the path of nuclear fusion that occurs
within stars but rather it is meant to demonstrate why the
“Valley of Stable Nucleus” exits.
Following the nuclei along the path of stability, approximatly ten
phases of the nuclear structure become evident. For the purpose of
this paper they are identified as:
- first, “the core”
- second, “the star”
- third, "Core Extension I"
- fourth, "The Loops I"
- fifth, "Core Extension II"
- sixth, "The Loops II"
- seventh, "Core Extension III"
- eight, “the voids”
- ninth, “the island”
- and there are caps from "The Star" to "The End"
The meaning of these identifications will become evident as you follow
through this treatise of the lattice structure of the nucleus.
The first step as we have already explained is
building the nuclear core. The steps to that point are well known
but the resulting structure is developed next.