A Little History

Jerry Montgomery Ph.D.
     and Rondo Jeffery Ph.D.

Jerry Montgomery Ph.D.
Rondo Jeffery Ph.D.

Rondo and Jerry met in 1989 at Weber State where they worked together on an experiment in nuclear physics.

In the 1990's Jerry developed the Aquatrack technology to map groundwater which he patented and started marketing. His company, Willowstick Technologies, uses the technology to map groundwater from the surface using magnetic fields. Aquatrack works by energizing the groundwater with electrical current which follows that water creating a magnetic field pattern which can be mapped too provide a map of the groundwater.

In 2002, after teaching physics for over 20 years, Rondo advanced to emeritus status and retired from teaching at Weber State University.

Later in 2002 Rondo joined Jerry at Willowstick to use their combined talents and knowledge to develop additional technology to map groundwater.

Velcro Model

When Jerry and Rondo started working together, Rondo was working on a paper to help teachers explain the nucleus to students using a simplified “Velcro Nuclear Model.” Rondo’s original approach was to describe protons and neutrons as fuzzy velcro-covered tennis balls that had ‘colored’ tentacles that adhered to each other at their points of contact. The model was useful in explaining fission, fusion and the nuclear binding energy curve. The model defined the minimum volume configurations of spheres and the maximum number of spheres that could touch. Using this configuration, Rondo determined that twelve touching spheres resulted in the densest packing of the nucleus. Remember that number, twelve.

Alpha Particle

While Jerry and Rondo were discussing the alpha particle, they pondered the true form of the alpha particle. Using Rondo’s velcro model, as expected the minimum configuration for the alpha particle is the commonly depicted configuration of four spheres located at the vertices of a tetrahedron. Jerry had been working with a model of the deuteron and alpha particles based on the constituent up and down quarks which compose the nucleons. The quark model indicated that the alpha particle should be flat with the protons and neutrons located on opposing diagonal corners (see the deuteron, alpha particle sections of this web site).

Protons, Neutrons and Quarks

This quark-plus-nucleon model indicated that the alpha particle is at the basic level composed of twelve particles, six up quarks and six down quarks locked in four nucleons. The magnetic dipole moments of the quarks are arranged and fixed in such a manner that all magnetic dipoles of the quarks combine to cancel. This magnetic alignment arranges the electrical charges of the quarks in a configuration that maximizes electrical field coupling. The resulting alpha particles are thus six-sided, flat structures rather than the old four-sided tetrahedral structure. This realization opened the door to understanding the structure of all nuclei.

Resulting Model

With an understanding of the alpha particle in hand the next step was to develop a set of condition or rules that could be used to define how stable nuclei form. The basic principle were that the strong force holds the nucleus and nucleons together, and the magnetic and electric force controls the structure of the nucleus.

Following are the ten basic principles necessary to understand how the structure of the nucleus is formed and controlled.

  1. The strong mesonic force holds the protons and neutrons within the nucleus.
  2. Color confinement, gluon field holds the quarks within the nucleons (protons and neutrons).
  3. The exclusion principle keeps nuclei from collapsing.
  4. The magnetic dipoles of the quarks combine and align to form the stable magnetic dipole of the nucleons. The magnetic dipoles of the nucleons combine to form a stable nuclear magnetic dipole. The position or orientations of these magnetic dipole with respect to each other never change. For example, The magnetic dipoles of the six up and six down quarks in the alpha particle combine to cancel, resulting in a particle with a zero magnetic dipole and zero spin. As it turns out the alpha particle “structure” becomes a major morphologic component of all nuclei.
  5. The electric fields of the protons and neutrons have two aspects. The first aspect is global, protons are positive and neutrons are neutral.
  6. The electric fields of the protons and neutrons have two aspects. The second aspect is local, protons are composed of two positive up quarks and one negative down quark and neutrons are composed of two negative down quarks and one positive up quark. The local electrical aspect of the quarks in the protons and the neutrons align to form the nuclear structure. The quarks align so that the down quarks in one nucleon are always lined up next to the up quarks in the adjacent nucleon and visa versa.
  7. Three quarks or particles when joined can only form a basically flattened, fundamentally triangular structure. Merge triangular structures and the underlying morphology is hexagonal.
  8. Balance, all types of balance are critical to the stability of the nucleus, mechanical balance, electrical balance, magnetic balance, structural balance, morphological balance, and physical balance.
  9. Symmetry, the nucleus is symmetrical with respect to its center. The intersection point of the nuclear axis for all nuclei heaver than carbon12 is situated on the center plane located between layers 6 and 7. This is the center of the nucleus and the point around which radial symmetry of the nucleus revolves.
  10. Imbalance in nuclei with an odd number of nucleons "A" is compensated for by the magnetic field of the quarks. The magnetic field is the only field with compounds that can slightly shift or tweak the nuclear structure enough to the maintain symmetrical balance of the nucleus.