From H12 to Mg24

The first significant nuclear components are the protons and neutrons. The second essential nuclear component is the alpha particle, and the third essential nuclear component or structure is the carbon ring. These are all lattice structures that are built around the interactions of electromagnetic fields associated with the up and down quarks. All nuclear structures are ultimately built around the foundation particles quarks.

The color force holds the quarks together as protons and neutron while the electromagnetic force arranges those protons and neutrons into a hexagonal lattice like structure. The hexagonal structure is the result of triangles formed by the three quarks that compose protons and neutrons. The structural form that builds the nuclear lattice is completely expressed in carbon12.

The nucleus forms a lattice structure based on the interrelationship of electrical and magnetic fields of the quarks that make up the protons and neutrons.

  • The foundation components are up quarks represented by the black nodes and down quarks represented by the white nodes.
  • The first nuclear components are protons represented by two black nodes connected to a white node with three blue struts, and neutrons represented by two white nodes connected to a black node with three white struts.
  • The second component, the alpha particle, is made up of two protons and two neutrons arranged in a two-layer, six sided lattice structure of twelve quarks, six up quarks and six down quarks.
  • The carbon12 ring could be considered a third nuclear component. The carbon ring could be considered as the first intermediate stage along the path of stable nuclei. The carbon ring is a lattice structure consisting of three alpha particles connected to form a ring.

Generally a neutron is added before a proton because of the over all positive charge on the nucleus. To this point the nucleus grows one neutron followed by one proton at a time. This continues for two more nuclei while the second carbon ring gets started. Add a neutron to carbon C12 and carbon C13 results. This neutron adds on over a proton above or below the first ring,

Add a proton it attaches next to the neutron on the top of the carbon ring and above a neutron to create nitrogen N14.

Add a proton to magnesium Mg26 and create aluminum Al2Add a neutron capping the new proton and generate nitrogen N157

The addition of a proton creates an alpha particle attached to the carbon ring, this results in oxygen O16. This is the last point where neutrons and protons alternate as singles, thus ending the deuteron step and starting the alpha step.

Two neutrons are added to oxygen before another proton is added to form fluorine. The first neutron is added where it joins the lower proton in the alpha particle setting on the carbon ring, and caps a proton in the carbon ring which makes O17.

The next neutron is most likely added as a cap on the last exposed proton on top of the carbon ring which creates O18.

Add a proton to O18 to create fluorine F19. The proton is added next to the alpha particle and on top of the neutron to reflect a deuteron attached to the end of an alpha.

Add a proton to fluorine F19 next to the deuteron and between two neutrons to create neon Ne20. There is every likely hood that the lone neutron adjacent to this proton slides up to form a second alpha particle in this growing second carbon ring.

Again two neutrons are added to neon Ne20 to create first Ne21 and Ne22.

They are the start to filling the gap in the second carbon ring.

Adding a proton creates sodium Na23. The proton sits on the first carbon ring.

Adding one more proton to sodium Na23 the resulting nucleus is magnesium Mg24. This proton also closes the second carbon ring. It might be possible to split Magnesium Mg24 into two carbon C12 nuclei.