The Core

From H1 to C12

This section examines the nuclei between hydrogen and carbon12. The first step is to examination of the alpha particle. The alpha particle is an important nuclear component and is made up of two protons and two neutrons that are arranged in a two-layer, six sided lattice structure which is composed of six up quarks and six down quarks.

This section on the core continues examining the remaining stable nuclei between helium 4 and the third nuclear component or first nuclear structure the carbon12 ring.

Hydrogen comes in three common varieties: The first two are stable, hydrogen and deuterium, and the third is unstable, tritium.

Hydrogen1 or the proton

A=1
Hydrogen - H1 composed of a single proton.

The proton is made of two up quarks and one down quark. The two 'UP quarks' are represented by two black ZOME nodes, and the one 'DOWN quark' is represented by a white ZOME node. Interconnections between the quarks in the proton are represented by blue ZOME struts

Deuterium

A=2
Deuterium - H2 or D2 composed of a proton and neutron.

When two protons join a positron and a neutrino are ejected to form deuterium

Two protons join to form a deuteron

 

 

 

 

    progression

Positron released from two protons to form a deuteron

A=3
Tritium - H3 composed of a proton and two neutrons.

IF, Tritium was like an oreo cooky where the proton was the filling it would have a spin of 3/2. However, Tritium has a spin of 1/2 so the two neutrons are joined in either a top and side positon or in two side positions.

Tritium - neutrons top and side.
Tritium - meutrons both at side

Helium comes in two common varieties:

Helium3 - He3 or Hethree

Helium3

A=3
He3 or Hethree is composed of two protons and one neutron. He 3 is the last stable nucleus which contains more protons than neutrons. Hethree just like tritium cannot be an oreo cooky because the spin would be wrong.

HeThree - protons both at side

The possible configurations are the same as tritium just exchanging protons and neutrons.

Tritium - neutrons top and side.

The nucleus of helium4 is also called an alpha particle.

Helium4 or the Alpha Particle

A=4
Helium4 - He4 composed of two protons and two neutrons.

Helium4
There are several paths that form helium in the center of stars. For information on these paths can be access at            Hydrogen Burning in Stars.

If access is not available from the original source this file is available locally at
             Hydrogen Burning in Stars. (same content in a local file)

Alpha

Following are some possible ways to visualize the structure of the alpha by visualizing pseudo growth processes:

A=4.
Two deuterium nuclei can merge to form a helium4 nucleus. Helium4 or the alpha particle is a very balanced particle, with all the magnetic fields aligned and electric charges in an optimal position with respect to each other. The triangular configuration of three quarks in the protons and neutrons creates an alpha particle that is a flattened six sided structure elongated along one axis. The six sided alpha structure plays an important part in the building the nuclear lattice structure. As the nuclei of ever large elements are formed, it will become apparent that the nuclear lattice structure proceeds through distinct phases of The Core, The Star, The Loops, The Extensions and The Island.


No isotope with an A=5

A=5
NONE
      There is no stable nucleus with an A of five. This is the first anomaly along the path of stability. This anomaly occurs because the He4 nucleus or alpha particle is so tight and basically balanced that He5 does not have the ability to hold on to an extra neutron or an single extra proton. So neither He5 nor Li5 exits for longer than about 10-22 seconds.


Lithium6

A=6
A deuteron can attach itself to one of the ends of the alpha particles to make the next stable nucleus lithium Li6.

Lithium6 can be described as two inter-fingered alpha particles where the central deuteron is common to both alpha's. In the figure to the left, the left side alpha is formed using a type one alpha bond and the right side alpha is formed using a type two alpha bond.

Lithium6
Lithium7

A=7
Additional neutron can be added to Li6 capping one of the end protons which creates lithium Li7. It is not possible to attach an stable additional permanent neutron to the alpha side of lithium Li7 and there is no free proton on the deuterium side so there is no stable lithium Li8.

There is another position where a neutron can fit and the spin will still be 3/2. That position is a branching off from the center proton to from a star shaped structure.

Lithium6

No isotope with an A=8

A=8
NONE
      This is the second gap or anomaly along the path of stability. If a proton is added to the deuterium side of Li7, beryllium Be8 is formed which is very unstable.

Why won't or donít two alphas hold together?

  


There are three possible ways for the two alphas to attach to each other and each involves four electrical attachment possibilities. Thus, a stable linkage is allusive as the two alphas try the alternate bonding options.

First potential binding position of two alpha particles Second potential binding position of two alpha particles Third potential binding position of two alpha particles

Add a neutron to the mix and a spin of 3/2 and an interesting linkage possibility emerges.

Individual components for Be9 Combined components forming Be9 star

A=9
The two alphas couple as four duteriums to form a star attaching the extra neutron as a cap over the proton in the central deuteron.
The result is beryllium Be9 with a spin of 3/2.

 

That extra neutron controls the way the two alphas can bond as four deuterons and thus the Be9 nucleus is stable.

 

 

 

 


 


First possibility for Boron10. 
 One of the protons on the end of a  
star spoke is capped by a neutron.
One of the other spokes neutron is 
capped by a proton.

 

A=10
Now add a proton to one of the beryllium Be9 star arms and move the neutron to the end of one of the other star arms. The results is boron B10. Each connection between the alpha arms forms 60 degree angles, and as in all nuclei the ultimate factor controlling structure is spin (magnetic dipoles).

 

 

 

Boron 10 absorbing a neutron
lithium7 structure and boron10 structure

Boron 10 and boron 11 have different basic structures. Thus when a neutron is added to boron 10 the result is NOT boron 11.

It is easier for boron 10 and a neutron to split into lithium 7 and helium 4 rather than rearrange to form B11. Review the structure of Li7 (A=7) and compare it to the structure of boron 10.

Following is a pictorial representation of neutron absorption by boron 10 which forms boron 11 Temp. The neutron ultimately inducing fission of boron 10 plus a neutron (boron 11Temp) nucleus and why the fission path is more favorable than the path to forming boron 11

Boron 10 capturing a neutron to form boron 11Temp

 

 

temporary boron 11Temp

 

 

 

 

 

The tower or stack of 2 protons and 2 neutrons collapses to form an alpha particle. The sequence is demonstrated below.

 

 

 

 

Boron 11Temp fissioned to lithium7 and a stack of 2 protons and 2 neutrons
stack of 2 protons and 2 neutrons

 

stack breaks in center

The tower or stack of 2 protons and 2 neutrons collapses to form an alpha particle. The sequence is demonstrated below.

 

 

the two resulting deuteriums start to flip to fuse

 

two deuteriums have flipped and are closing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

almost alpha particle Alpha particle

Again compare the nuclear structure of boron 10 with boron 11 and lithium 7.

Alpha particle

           BORON11                             BORON10

Alpha particle

 

 

 

 

     LITHIUM7

First possibility for Boron10. 
 One of the protons on the end of a  
star spoke is capped by a neutron.
One of the other spokes neutron is 
capped by a proton.

A=11
There is a gap in the boron B11 partial ring. If a Proton and Neutron (Deuteron) fills the gap between two ends and the ring closes to form carbon 12.

  

Three alpha particles starting
to come together to form carbon The three alpha particles closer Three alpha particles in position
ready to become the carbon12 ring
The Carbon12 Ring

A=12
Finnish closing that ring on B11 with a proton and by shifting the neutron down into the same gap to form carbon C12, the next element. This is the carbon ring or carbon12 and the structure of this 12-nucleon ring becomes the second perceptual structure in the nucleus right behind the alpha particle.


Generally a neutron is added before a proton because of the over all positive charge on the nucleus. To this point the nucleus grows one neutron followed by one proton at a time. This continues for two more nuclei while the second carbon ring layer gets started. After the next two nuclei, nucleon additions occurs in pairs. Two, four or six neutrons are first added followed by two protons. For stable nuclei heavier than oxygen the nucleon are always added in even numbers to maintain stability via balance.